History Of Italy
The history of Italy dates back to as early as eighth century B.C. — Italy has developed gradually throughout history via several social and cultural modifications through time to reach its current state of elegance and sophistication – its bright cultural history has definitely played a part in making the nation of Italy the fourth most popular tourist destination in the world. Since the unification of Italy in 1863, the nation has made many significant contributions in several different fields – including art, music and architecture. Italy’s contributions have had a remarkable effect on European culture throughout history. Let’s take a brief look at Italian history at different periods in time.
Dating back to between the fifteenth and eighth centuries B.C., Italy flourished with the Terramare culture – the people who followed this culture were respectfully known as the Terramares. Back before any industrialization, the people’s main occupation was agriculture. Mainly, the Terramares were known for taming wild animals and they made their living off hunting and farming. The Terramares were also known for their skills in metallurgy – in fact, their clay molds are still famous to this day.
Skipping past the Iron Age of Italy (where the Villanovan culture flourished), the Etruscans were dominant in Italy around 8000 B.C. These people lived a monogamous lifestyle, spoke non-Indo European languages and were known to have believed in polytheism – which, for those of you that don’t know, is the idea that everything in the world is regulated by some sort of divine power (perhaps God).
The founding of Rome is one of the greatest phenomena to ever take place in Italy – it was founded in fifth century B.C. by Romulus and Remus. Throughout Roman history, many civilizations rose up and fell – this led to significant expansion of territories. Some of the most known Roman emperors include: Julius Caesar, Octavius Caesar, Mark Anthony and Augustus. During the fifth century B.C., the Roman Empire had considerable influence over many other parts of the world and was responsible for conquering many regions.
It was during the Middle Ages (6th century B.C. to 14th century B.C.) that Italy witness many political commotions and societal changes. When the last Roman Emperor was overthrown in 493 B.C. by General Odoacer of the German army, Italy was left in a state of turmoil. Unfortunately, it didn’t get any better for the people of Italy with the onset of the Gothic war – after which the Lombard people took control over the country. This didn’t last too long however as the Lombard invasion was overtaken by the Byzantine Empire under the rule of Emperor Charlemagne. Finally, it was with the formation of the Papal States that political stability was established for the first time in the political history of Italy.
During the period dubbed the Renaissance, Italy saw notable changes in the social, cultural and even political domains (between the fifteenth and sixteenth century B.C.). The cultural movement began at Tuscany and later proceeded into other parts of Italy – eventually modifying human life in the country.
Eventually, all the Italian states were reunited into a single country and Italy was officially declared a nation-state in the year 1861. The monarch style of government slowly vanished from the nation as the country prepared itself for World War I. It was during the Second World War that Italy saw a rise of Fascism under the leadership of Benito Mussolini – who led the country against Germany and the Axis Powers. At the end of World War II, specifically on June 2, 1946, Italy was proclaimed as a Republic nation – and since then, June 2nd is celebrated as Republic day. It was during the same period of time that a new constitution was adopted by the Republican government and Italian women were finally given the right to vote.